The marketable products derived from the plantations and palm oil mills are as follows:
- Fresh Fruit Bunches or FFB
- Crude Palm Oil or CPO
- Palm Kernel or PK
- Palm Oil Mill Effluent or POME
- Empty Fruit Bunches or EFB
- Palm Kernel Shell or PKS and fibre
- Decanter Cake
- Long Palm Fibre
Fresh Fruit Bunches or FFB
Fresh Fruit Bunches is the only marketable product harvested from the palm tree. The FFB is processed in the mill for extraction of Crude Palm Oil and Palm kernel.
PALM OIL MILL
CPO is the liquid oil extracted from the outer layer or mesocarp of the oil palm fruit-lets during the milling process. The crude palm oil is semi-solid at room temperature but turns into Orange liquid oil upon slight heating. Refined palm oil when fractionated produces liquid cooking oil (RBD olein) and solid fat (RBD stearin).
Crude palm oil traded in the market is defined with following specifications:
Free Fatty Acid (as palmatic) = 5% max
Moisture & Impurities = 0.5% max
Palm kernel is extracted from the inner-most part of the oil palm fruit-lets in the mill. It is done by removing the outer mesocarp fibre and cracking the hard nuts to remove the hard shell covering the inner kernel. Palm kernel is sold to kernel crushing plant for extraction of Palm Kernel Oil and Kernel Cake. The product is traded with the following specifications:
Dirt & Shell = 6% – 10% max
Moisture = 7% – 10% max
Free Fatty Acid = 5% max
- POME and Decanter cake
POME is a waste to be treated before discharge into water-course. During the degradation of POME, methane rich biogas is emitted. The biogas is captured and utilized as fuel for the production of renewable electrical energy and heat energy. The solid sludge separated from the POME through a decanter is used EITHER directly as organic fertilizer in form decanter cake OR blending with EFB fibre for production of organic compost.
After stripping off all fruit-lets from the sterilized Fresh Fruit Bunches during milling process, EFB is produced as the by-product. EFB can be further processed into down-stream marketable products.
- Palm Kernel Shell or PKS and Fibre
With the escalating cost in fossil fuel, PKS and fibre are becoming the sought after solid fuel. PKS is produced after cracking of nuts and extraction of kernel; fibre is in the form of mesocarp fibre or shredded EFB. Both PKS and fibre are marketable products.
- Decanter Cake
The solid sludge separated from the POME through a decanter is used EITHER directly as organic fertilizer in form decanter cake OR blending with EFB fibre for production of organic compost.
Shredded EFB can be converted into organic compost together with POME sludge in the Compost Plant. It is sold as organic “fertilizer” which is found to be a good soil conditioner in field application
- Long Fibre
The EFB is also shredded and processed into Long Palm Fibre and sold as raw material for industrial applications such as in manufacturing of mattress.