The product derived from the Plantations is Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and other marketable products derived from palm oil mills are:

  1. Crude Palm Oil (CPO)
  2. Palm Kernel (PK) 
  3. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) 
  4. Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB)
  5. Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocarp Fibre (MF)
  6. Bio-Compost
  7. Decanter Cake
  8. EFB Fibre


Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB)

FFB is the only marketable product harvested from the palm tree. The FFB is processed in the mill for extraction of Crude Palm Oil and Palm kernel.


  1. Crude Palm Oil (CPO)

    CPO is the liquid oil extracted from the outer layer or mesocarp of the oil palm fruit-lets during the milling process. The crude palm oil is semi-solid at room temperature but turns into Orange liquid oil upon slight heating. Refined palm oil when fractionated produces liquid cooking oil (RBD olein) and solid fat (RBD stearin).

    Crude palm oil traded in the market is defined with following specifications:

    Free Fatty Acid (as palmatic) = 5% max
    Moisture & Impurities = 0.5% max

  2. Palm Kernel (PK)

    Palm kernel is extracted from the inner-most part of the oil palm fruit-lets in the mill. It is done by removing the outer mesocarp fibre and cracking the hard nuts to remove the hard shell covering the inner kernel. Palm kernel is sold to kernel crushing plant for extraction of Palm Kernel Oil and Kernel Cake. The product is traded with the following specifications:

    Dirt & Shell = 6% – 10% max
    Moisture = 7% – 10% max
    Free Fatty Acid = 5% max

  3. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) 

    POME is a waste to be treated before discharge into water-course. During the degradation of POME, methane rich biogas is emitted. The biogas can be captured and utilized as fuel for the production of renewable electrical energy and heat energy. 

  4. Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB)

    After stripping off all fruit-lets from the sterilized Fresh Fruit Bunches during milling process, EFB is produced as the by-product. EFB can be further processed into down-stream marketable products.

  5. Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocorp Fibre (MF)

    PKS is produced after cracking of nuts and extraction of PK while mesocarp fiber is extracted after oil extraction and nuts separation. With the escalating cost in fossil fuel, PKS and MFr are becoming the sought after solid fuel for boiler operations

  6. Decanter Cake

    The solid sludge separated during the milling process OR from the POME through the use of Decanters is rich in soil enriching nutrients. The by product can be applied EITHER directly in the form of decanter cake to the fields OR used as raw material for production of bio-compost

  7. Bio-Compost

    Bio-compost is produced by converting shredded EFB fiber blended with POME and decanter cake under controlled conditions. The aerobic process is carried out in the Composting Plant with the introduction of special cultured microbes. The EFB bio-compost is found to be helpful in enriching the soil with useful nutrients. 

  8. EFB Fibre

    The EFB can be shredded and processed into EFB fiber and Long Palm Fiber. The EFB fiber can be used directly as solid fuel in boilers. With additional processing it can also be converted into value added pallets –a solid fuel with higher calorific value. The dried Long Palm Fiber however is a good raw material for industrial applications such as in the manufacturing of mattress.